Ion Mass Analyser IMA

IMA (Fig. 17) is an improved version of the ion mass spectrographs TICS (Freja, 1992), IMIS (part of ASPERA-C Mars-96, 1996) and IMI (Planet-B, 1998) (Norberg Fig. 17. Cross-section view of the IMA sensor. Fig. 17. Cross-section view of the IMA sensor. et al., 1998). It is a copy of the ICA instrument to be launched on Rosetta to Comet Wirtanen in 2003. Particles enter the analyser through an outer grid. Behind the grid is a deflection system to divert particles coming from between 45 and 135...

In situ calibration and validation

Once Beagle 2 has finally come to rest on the surface of Mars and fully deployed itself, the PAW is ready to obtain the first image of the landing site. This is achieved via the Wide Angle Mirror, which moves into the FOV of the right-hand stereo camera when the pre-tensioned spring holding it down is released by the opening of the lid and solar panels. The figure of the WAM is designed to provide a 360 view of the landing site that includes the horizon. Fig. 18 shows simulated and actual views...

Radio sounding of the neutral atmosphere and ionosphere Science Objectives

The modern value for the surface pressure of Mars was first determined in 1965 by using the radio occultation method with Mariner-4 Kliore et al., 1965 . Prior to that, the literature indicated a consensus that the surface pressure was of the order 100 mbar about 10 of Earth's , based on spectroscopic observations from the ground, with many believing that oxygen was a likely major constituent. A more accurate value was needed in support of martian landers being studied by NASA teams lead by...

Neutral Particle Detector NPD

Neutral Charge Particle Detector

The NPD contains two identical sensors, each a pinhole camera. Fig. 9 provides a conceptual view of one sensor. In each sensor, the charged particles, electrons and ions are removed by the deflection system, which consists of two 90 sectors separated by a 4.5 mm gap. In the normal operational mode, the 10 kV potential 5 kV applied to the sectors results in a strong electric field that sweeps away all charged particles with energies up to 70 keV. The deflector also collimates the incoming beam...

Surface clutter reduction techniques

As apparent from Fig. 7, when sounding over rough areas of the martian crust rms slope gt 2-3 the detection depth will be severely limited by the surface clutter, rather than by the cosmic noise. In order to improve the sounding performance in these regions, different methods of reducing the surface clutter contributions were included in MARSIS Doppler filtering of surface clutter dual-antenna clutter cancellation and dual-frequency clutter cancellation. Detailed descriptions and performance...

Anthropomorphic Robotic Manipulator ARM Surface Operations

The Beagle 2 ARM Fig. 14 is a 5-degree-of-freedom manipulator, with the PAW permanently attached to the wrist. The fully extended ARM is 109 cm long, measured from the centre of the body joint to the centre of the PAW wrist joint. Each joint comprises a DC brushed motor driving through a 100 1 harmonic gearbox. Joint position is detected by a potentiometer mounted directly onto the output shaft. A typical joint speed is 0.6 s-1 axes 1-3 only . The ARM's primary purpose is to position and...

ModuleO PFSO

PFS-O is divided into the Interferometer Block IB and Electronics Block EB . They are mechanically separated but electrically connected through six cables. The highly compact IB is a gas-tight box filled by dry nitrogen in order to preserve the hygroscopic optical elements. The optical scheme of PFS is shown in Fig. 11. The incident IR beam falls onto the entrance filter that separates the radiation of the SW channel from that of the LW channel and directs each into the appropriate...

Environmental Sensor Suite

Beagle 2 is equipped with a complementary set of environmental sensors Fig. 12 to assist in both the prime objective, characterisation of the landing site and meteorological studies. Measurement of the UV and radiation flux a RadFET within the lander electronics measures total dosage at the surface together with the oxidising capability of the soil and air provides direct input into the astrobiological investigations. In addition, measurement of atmospheric temperature, pressure, wind speed...

Subsurface return signaltonoise performance

Figures 9-10 summarise the predicted performance of the radar sounder in detecting the ice water and dry ice subsurface interfaces, according to the simple models described above and using the nominal MARSIS design parameters discussed in Section 6.1. Figure 9 refers to ice water interface detection, and Fig. 10 to dry ice. The four graphs in each figure present the detection at the two boundary frequency bands 1.8 MHz and 5 MHz from two altitudes 250 km and 800 km , which represent the minimum...

Radio sounding of the solar corona

Mars will move into superior conjunction with the Sun in the autumns of 2004 and 2006. Within about 10 elongation with respect to the solar disc in the plane of the sky Fig. 9 , the dispersive effects on the radio signals propagation time, Doppler shift and Doppler noise are dominated by the solar corona. It is therefore proposed that this valuable time be used for a thorough investigation of the solar corona to derive electron density profiles in the structured corona, solar wind speed,...