Hhrom nnnru ftto touchdown

Figure 4.1.1-1 A L profile from 50,000 ft to T D (part 1 of 2) Figure 4.1.1-1 A L profile from 50,000 ft to T D (part 2 of 2) Figure 4.1.1-1 A L profile from 50,000 ft to T D (part 2 of 2) Table 4.1.1-1 Partial TAEM Guidance Summary Table 4.1.1-1 Partial TAEM Guidance Summary Final energy adjustmentt line Up for autoland Acquire center line. Prepare for autoland

Papi Symbol On Vsd Profile

Mach < 1 Until HAC Intercept Time 5 00 minutes before wheels stop M < 1.0 H 50,000 ft R 25 NM GUID TAEM guidance, acquisition phase, MM 305 a . Discussion When the Mach number is less than 1.0, the CDR takes manual control of the orbiter by putting the flight control system into CSS. CSS may be engaged by pushing the pitch and roll yaw PBI's on either the CDR's or PLT's eyebrow panel, or by deflecting either RHC greater than 6 out of detent in both pitch and roll axes. Each axis is...

Air Data

The Flight Control System (FCS) functions best when good Air Data Transducer Assembly (ADTA) data are available. FCS gains within the aerojet Digital Auto Pilot (DAP) are scheduled as a function of Mach number and dynamic pressure (Q-bar). Without ADTA data, bad Navigation Derived Air Data (NAVDAD) can cause severe flight control problems by causing the FCS gains to be out of sync with the environment. With good ADTA data incorporated to Guidance and Control (G& C), auto flight control will...

Outer Glide Slope

The main purpose of the OGS is to provide an equilibrium glide path that results in sufficient energy at preflare, which is one of the prerequisites for a safe landing. Preflare is defined as a constant g pull up maneuver, beginning at 2000 ft to arrest the vehicle altitude rate. The OGS consists of a sloped-line segment that intercepts the ground at a specified distance from the runway threshold. The OGS is nominally acquired at 10,000 ft, autoland interface, but the OGS may be acquired as...

Runway Lighting

Where available, the existing runway edge lights are used for night operations. Reflective edge markers are spaced at 200 ft intervals on the MSBLS equipped lakebed runways. A setting of three on a five-step control is desired for orbiter night landing operations. Approach lighting is required for night landing operations. An FAA, military, or International Civil Aviation Organization ICAO approach lighting system is adequate for night landing operations. If no approach lighting system is...

Heads Up Display

The data presented in this section explains the layout and sequence of the parametric and situational data that is displayed on the HUD during the A L phase. Data sources will also be presented where applicable. Information on specific crew techniques for flying the HUD guidance are explained in Section 5. The HUD symbology displays in Figure 2.12.1-1 and Figure 2.12.1-2 are designed to provide the CDR and Pilot PLT with the guidance and vehicle configuration information required to accomplish...

Appendix C Braking Procedures And Brake Energy

The start of braking is determined by the ground speed, although the position on the runway is also considered. The braking begins when the ground speed decreases to 140 kts and the orbiter has passed the midfield point. The braking starts if the distance to the end of the runway decreases to 5000 ft before the ground speed decreases to 140 kts. The selection of 140 kts for the nominal start of braking is an arbitrary compromise between the maximum possible braking speed, the necessity of...

Flight Procedures Handbook

Mission Operations Directorate Flight Design and Dynamics Division Ascent Descent Dynamics Branch Verify that this is the correct version before use. National Aeronautics and Space Administration Approach, Landing and Rollout Flight Procedures Handbook Revision B Scott A. Hartman Ascent Entry Guidance and Procedures Officer Approach, Landing and Rollout Flight Procedures Handbook Book Manager Glenn E. Pogue Group Lead, Ascent Entry Guidance and Procedures Gregory T. Oliver Chief, Ascent Descent...

Appendix C Rollout Margins And Brake Energy

When rollout margin was first used in the flight rules, the value used was based on the data shown in Table C.1-I. The 2000 ft limit was used for runways with or without barriers until STS-50, when a Monte Carlo analysis was performed to see if the limit could be reduced for runways with barriers. This analysis assumed all of the same error sources but randomly selected each one based on new statistical models that represented flight performance history. The standard braking procedures were...

Derotation

The objective of the derotation is, with the main landing gear on the runway, to decrease the pitch attitude of the orbiter at a controlled rate, until the nose gear is on the ground. Furthermore, due to increases in the Orbiter gross weight and Center of Gravity C.G. limits, it became necessary to manage main landing gear loads and nose landing gear axle loads during this phase of the landing and rollout. Initially the Orbiter derotations were done manually, with a design pitch rate of -2 sec....

Speedbrake

The purpose of the speedbrake SB during A L is to actively control the orbiter energy on the HAC, transition to an EAS control on the OGS, retract to a fixed setting that targets the orbiter for a nominal 2500 ft T D, and aid in stopping the vehicle by going to the full open position at MGTD. On the OGS the SB responds directly to errors in EAS to maintain the reference value of 300 KEAS. To control the orbiter T D energy, the SB is retracted at 3000 ft altitude to a value calculated by onboard...

Appendix B Basic Constraints

Weight is one of the most important factors in designing the orbiter reference trajectory profiles. The current A L geometry I-loads are designed for orbiter weights between 190k lb and 248k lb. Heavier weights have been tested many times, but the resulting performance was always degraded. When weights become lighter than 185k lb or heavier than 250k lb, serious consideration will have to be given to changing the OGS geometry and or the targeted T D speeds to retain the desired dispersion...

Flare And Shallow Glide Slope

The purpose of the Flare and Shallow Glide Slope FSGS phase is to transition the trajectory from the OGS to the IGS. The flightpath geometry consists of a giant pull up circle and an exponential to the IGS Figures 4.5.1-1 and 4.5.1-2 . On the OGS the altitude rate is approximately -185 fps, which must be arrested to -3 fps at T D. The FSGS phase nominally reduces the altitude rate to -12 fps, leaving the remainder to be arrested during the FF phase. Appendix B.3 contains a discussion of the...

Flight Procedures Handbook Publications

The following is a list of the Integrated Flight Procedures Handbooks of which this document is a part. These handbooks document integrated and or flight procedural sequences covering major shuttle crew activity plan phases. OMS RCS On-Orbit Operations 10588 Inertial Measurement Unit Alignment 12842 Ascent Orbit Entry Pocket Checklists, Ascent Entry Systems 16873 Procedures and Cue Cards with Rationale Update document through OI-28, including Updated nose wheel steering section New single APU...

Trail Mark

This discussion is also limited due to the fact that once the yaw jets are disabled Mach 1 , the YAW L and R and the ROLL L and R lights no longer have a function. At this point, the PITCH U and D lights are the only lights that are still functioning. The PITCH U and D lights take on a new meaning after Q-bar gt 50 psf. Both lights U and D are lit whenever the elevon surface drive rate exceeds 20 deg sec 10 deg sec for only one hydraulic system remaining . Thus, for A L or for entry and Q-bar...

Info

Left right probe data, no flags unless commfaults Left right probe data, no flags unless commfaults Center air data unless RM dilemma, then NAV data 2.11.4. Altitude Vertical Velocity Indicator AVVI The AVVI Figure 2.11.4-1 displays the navigation or barometric altitude H, ft , and the altitude rate Hdot, ft s . Below 5000 feet, the radar altimeter altitude is displayed on the altitude tape R, ft . The altitude scale, H, is a moving tape read against a fixed digital display which displays the...

Touchdown And Rollout Discretes

T D and rollout are two distinct phases of the orbiter landing. At MGTD, the No-WOW discrete on each gear is set to false zero . When both WOW discretes on one main gear are set false for more than l second, the WOWLON discrete is set true. If the other main gear discretes are not set false within 7.2 sec, a WOW dilemma is annunciated. To clear a WOW dilemma set WOWLON , the crew must manually mode to ROLLOUT by depressing either the Solid Rocket Booster SRB or External Tank ET separation SEP...

Flight Data File

Landing and Rollout Briefing The deorbit prep timeline allows a period of time for an entry briefing. This period, labeled Entry Review, typically occurs about 1 hour 40 minutes before the deorbit burn. Landing and rollout briefing items should include, but are not limited to, the items in the bottom third of the DEL PAD. These are b. Type of HAC overhead or straight-in, left or right turn f. Aimpoint nominal or close-in g. Winds at 50k, 38k, 28k, 20k, 12k, 7k, 3k, 1k and at the surface...

Navigation

The entry navigation software processes inputs from the IMU's, ADTA, Tactical Air Navigation TACAN system, and MSBLS, using a Kalman filter to maintain an estimate of the orbiter state vector. Operating cyclically, the navigation software selects the available sensor measurements each cycle, computes the proper state vector gain based on the measurement via a covariance matrix, applies that gain to the state vector, and then adjusts the covariance matrix to reflect the update. The navigation...

Drag Chute

The addition of the drag chute on the Shuttle has been the biggest single improvement made to the rollout phase. The actual flight stopping distance and brake energy have both been significantly reduced with the aid of the drag chute, thus improving the landing safety margins. Nominal drag chute deploy is planned for every flight. Exceptions might include very slow touchdowns and or very high crosswinds. The pilot initiates nominal chute deploy 2 seconds prior to the start of derotation. For a...

Appendix B Final Flare

Very important factors in arresting the altitude rate are the powerful aerodynamic ground effects of the orbiter. These ground effects grow exponentially as the altitude decreases, and the resulting increase in L D is approximately 25 percent, which eases the landing task for the pilot and guidance at this very critical stage of flight. Figure B.4-1 compares the altitude-altitude rate history of two trajectories, one with ground effects and one without ground effects the resulting altitude rate...

Appendix B Heading Alignment Cone And Prefinal

Heading Alignment Cone

Before STS-5 the orbiter flew around a heading alignment circle. After STS-4 the reference profile was changed from a circle to an inverted cone Figure B.1-l , where the orbiter would fly a 42 bank angle. This allowed the orbiter to fly more constant bank angles during large turns and also to better manage high-energy situations. Profile options were also included to improve low-energy situations. These options included straight-in approach, radius adjust, and MEP HAC. Of the three, only the...

Papi Light Outer Glide Slope

Papi Guidance Lights

To assist the crew in identifying the OGS, PAPI lights are installed 6500 ft and 7500 ft from the threshold of the runway, Figure 3.4-1. The PAPI lights are highly directional and OGS cueing is a function of the apparent change in PAPI light color. There are four PAPI light units, spaced 40 ft apart, at both the 6500 ft close-in aimpoint and 7500 ft nominal aimpoint locations, perpendicular to-the runway centerline due to local conditions and constraints, some PAPI sites may be offset slightly...

Heading Alignment Cone And Prefinal

Head Alignment Cone Shuttle

After the orbiter speed decreases below Mach 2.5, the vehicle enters the TAEM phase of descent guidance. TAEM guidance delivers the vehicle from an altitude of 85,000 ft, at a range to the runway of 60 NM and a speed of Mach 2.5, down to an altitude of 10,000 ft, a range of 6 NM, and a speed of 300 KEAS. The orbiter should be ready to enter the final A L phase of descent guidance. This document addresses only the last two segments of TAEM guidance the heading alignment segment for descending...