August

Gilruth requested of Jet Propulsion Laboratory Director William H. Pickering that JPL fire the Surveyor spacecraft's vernier engine after the Surveyor landed on moon, to give insight into how much erosion could be expected from an LM landing. The LM descent engine was to operate until it was about one nozzle diameter from landing on the lunar surface after the Surveyor landed, its engine would be about the same distance from the surface. Gilruth told Pickering that LaRC...

Takeoff From Moon With Fifth Stage

(3) The reentry vehicle starts to enter the atmosphere while the jettisoned propulsion unit, shown more clearly in the lunar takeoffconcept, is at left. In a paper presented to the Tenth International Astronautical Congress in London, England, Milton W. Rosen and F. Carl Schwenk described a five-stage launch vehicle for manned lunar exploration. The direct ascent technique would be used in landing an 8000-pound spacecraft on the moon and returning it to earth. The F-1 engine would power both...

July

The Air Force Chief of Staff announced the reassignment of Carroll H. Bolender from Washington to Houston as Program Manager for the lunar module at MSC. He had been Apollo Mission Director at NASA Hq. TWX, Air Force Chief of Staff to NASA Hq. and MSC, July 26, 1967. July 26 MSC asked continued engineering and inspection support from KSC, although increased activity at KSC was making support and factory operations more difficult. KSC had provided support for LM-1 at Bethpage, Long Island, and...

October

MSC spacecraft and mission planning experts met to discuss mission techniques for the D mission, specifically the rendezvous exercise. Because of the slow progress in reviewing a draft of the D Rendezvous Mission Techniques document, Apollo Data Priority Coordinator Howard W. Tindall reported that the Center's effort in this area needed to be strengthened. Participants did identify exactly what spacecraft equipment had to be working at the start of each segment of the rendezvous exercise. A...

November

Four Navy officers were injured when an electrical spark ignited a fire in an altitude chamber, near the end of a 14-day experiment at the U.S. Navy Air Crew Equipment Laboratory, Philadelphia, Pa. The men were participating in a NASA experiment to determine the effect on humans of breathing pure oxygen for 14 days at simulated altitudes. Edward L. Michel, George B. Smith, Jr., Richard S. Johnston, Gaseous Environment Considerations and Evaluation Programs Leading to Spacecraft Atmosphere...

April

The Apollo 16 (AS-511) space vehicle was launched from Pad A, Launch Complex 39, KSC, at 12 54 p. m. EST April 16, with a crew of astronauts John W. Young, Thomas K. Mattingly II, and Charles M. Duke, Jr. After insertion into an earth parking orbit for spacecraft system checks, the spacecraft and the S-IVB stage were placed on a trajectory to the moon at 3 28 p.m. CSM transposition and docking with the LM were achieved, although a number of minor anomalies were noted. One anomaly, an auxiliary...

May

NASA, North American, Grumman, and RCA representatives determined the alterations needed to make the CM television camera compatible with that in the LEM an additional oscillator to provide synchronization, conversion of operating voltage from 115 AC to 28 DC, and reduction of the lines per frame from 400 to 320. NAA, Apollo Monthly Progress Report, SID 62-300-44, July 1, 1963, p. 9. May 3 At El Centro, Calif., Northrop Ventura conducted the first of a series of qualification tests for the...

February

In response to action required by the CSM 2TV-2 and CSM 101 Wire Board in October 1967, Dale D. Myers, CSM Program Manager at North American Rockwell, submitted to MSC results of a wire improvement study for the umbilical feedthrough area for the lower equipment bay. Myers stated that substantial improvements in wiring appearance in the lower equipment bay had been made even before the Wire Board's ordered study and that further improvements of any significant nature could not be made without...

Mission Sequence To Earth

A mission sequence to earth landing, developed by G.E. during its Project Apollo feasibility study, including the planned configuration through the lunar-earth trajectory, reentry and landing. (G.E. illustration) TO THE MOON WITH C-1 's OR BUST was the theme ofthe day at Langley Research Center May 22, 1961. The sketch by John D. Bird on that day portrays the means of completing the lunar mission by launching ten C-1 's.

December

The first technical review of the General Electric Company Apollo feasibility study was held at the contractor's Missile and Space Vehicle Department. Company representatives presented reports on the study so that STG representatives might review progress, provide General Electric with pertinent information from NASA or other sources, and discuss and advise as to the course of the study. Minutes of General Electric Missile and Space Vehicle Department Meeting No. 1, December 6-8, 1960.

March

NASA Headquarters approved plans for the development of the Little Joe II test launch vehicle. Prospective bidders were notified of a briefing to be held at MSC on April 6, at which time Requests for Proposals would be distributed. Apollo Spacecraft Project Office, MSC, Weekly Activity Report, March 25-31, 1962. March 29 Members of Langley Research Center briefed representatives of the Chance Vought Corporation of Ling- Temco-Vought, Inc., on the lunar orbit rendezvous method of accomplishing...

June July

Dalmo-Victor submitted to MSC a report on modifications necessary to extend to lunar distances the operating range of the CSM's high-gain antenna. The Instrumentation and Electronic Systems Division was reviewing the report. MSC, ASPO Weekly Management Report, June 24-July 1, 1965. June 24-July 1 MSC completed a cursory analysis of LEM landing gear load-stroke requirements at touchdown velocities of 2.43 m (8 ft) per sec vertical and 1.22 m (4 ft) per sec horizontal. This study was conducted to...

Lunar Surface Experiment Investigators

Latham, Marine Biomedical Institute, Galveston, Texas S 033 Active Seismic Robert L. Kovach, Stanford University S 203 Lunar Seismic Profiling Robert L. Kovach, Stanford University S 034 Lunar Surface Magnetometer Charles P. Sonett, Lunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona Conway W. Snyder, Jet Propulsion Laboratory S 036 Suprathermal Ion Detector John W. Freeman, Rice University S 037 Heat Flow Marcus E. Langseth, Columbia University S 038 Charged-Particle Lunar Environment...

October November

MSC conducted a week-long salt spray test on the CM television camera's magnesium housing. This was necessitated by similar tests on the Leach data storage structure, which had disclosed the inadequacy of that equipment's nickel plating. The television camera, with its protective coating (AMS 2478, Dow 17 treatment), withstood the ordeal quite well. MSC therefore decided that the magnesium housing was acceptable. Ibid. ASPO Weekly Management Report, November 5-12, 1964. October 29-November 5...

Major Spacecraft Component Manufacturers

Communications, instrumentation, VHF transponder power amp, VHF transmitter, omnidirectional, ereciabJe antenna, TV, per so n nel I ext raveh fc u I a ri Inertial measuring unit, power servo assy, ground support, syslem assembly, test , inertral reference integrating gyro Telemetry data processing for Apollo Associate prime-guidance. navigation

June

Independent studies were made at MSC and North American to determine effects and impact of offloading certain Block II service propulsion system components for Saturn IB missions. The contractor was requested to determine the weight change involved and schedule and cost impact of removing one oxidizer tank, one fuel tank, one helium tank and all associated hardware (fuel and oxidizer transfer lines, propellant quantity sensors and certain gaging wire harnesses) from CSM 101 and CSM 103. The MSC...

September

MSC Flight Operations Division (FOD) established a 72-hour lifetime for Apollo recovery aids. This limitation was derived from considerations of possible landing footprints, staging bases, and aircraft range and flying time to the landing areas. Primary location aids were the spacecraft equipment (VHF AM transceiver, VHF recovery beacon, and HE transceiver) and the VHF survival radio. Because of battery limitations, current planning called for only a 24-hour usage of the VHF recovery beacon. If...

Lunar Orbital Experiment Investigators

Arnold, University of California at San Diego S 161 X-Ray Fluorescence Isidore Adler, University of Maryland S 162 Alpha-Particle Spectrometer Paul Gorenstein, Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory, Cambridge, Mass. S 164 S-Band Transponder William L. Sjogren, Jet Propulsion Laboratory S 165 Lunar Orbital Mass Spectrometer J. H. Hoffman, University of Texas at Dallas S 169 Ultraviolet Spectrometer William E. Fastie, Johns Hopkins University S 170 Bistatic Radar H. Taylor Howard,...

January

NASA converted one of its major contracts from a cost-plus-fixed-fee to a cost-plus-incentive-fee agreement. The contract was with North American Aviation's Space and Information Systems Division, Downey, Calif., for development of the Apollo spacecraft command and service modules (CSM) and spacecraft-lunar excursion module adapter (SLA). NASA News Release 66-15, Apollo Spacecraft Major Contract Is Converted, Jan. 21, 1966. January 21 NASA negotiated a contract with Massachusetts Institute of...

Info

Bellcomm, Inc., presented its evaluation of the requirement for a q-ball in the emergency detection system. The device, enclosed in the nose cone atop the launch escape tower, measured dynamic pressures and thus monitored the vehicle's angle of attack, and was designed to warn the crew of an impending breakup of the vehicle. Bellcomm's findings confirmed that the q-ball was absolutely essential and that the device was ideally suited to its task. Letter, P. R. Knaff, Bellcomm, to O. E. Maynard,...

Charles Donlan Nasa

ASPO Manager George Low emphatically rejected North American Rockwell's suggestion of added spacecraft delivery delays. Responding to a February letter from North American CSM Program Manager Dale D. Myers - suggesting further slips in delivery of 2TV-1 and spacecraft 101, 103, and 104 - Low reminded Myers that at the close of the Configuration Control Board meeting on February 23 he had cited a mid-April target for delivery of CSM 101. Since that time, Low said, KSC had been actively preparing...

January July Nasa Sp

Foreword The Key Events Preface Part 1. Part 1. A January through March 1966 Part 1. B 2nd quarter 1966 Part 1. C 3rd quarter 1966 Part 1. D 4th quarter 1966 Part 1. H March April 1967 Part 2. Part 2. D 3rd quarter 1967 Part 2. N August September 1968 Part 2. O October 1968 Part 3. Part 2. Part 2. Part 2. Part 2. Part 2. Part 2. Part 2. Part 2. Part 2. Part 2. Part 2. Part 2. Part 2. Part 2. Part 2. The Apollo Spacecraft - A Chronology. Table of Contents Part 3. A October November 1968 Part 3....

During the Month

NAA engineers began preliminary layouts to define the elements of the command module CM configuration. Additional requirements and limitations imposed on the CM included reduction in diameter, paraglider compatibility, 250 pounds of radiation protection water, redundant propellant tankage for the attitude control system, and an increase in system weight and volume. Layouts were also being prepared to identify equipment requirements in the CM aft compartment, while layouts depicting the position...

By Ivan D Ertel and Mary Louise Morse Through November Nasa Sp

Foreword The Key Events Preface Part 1. Part 1. Beginnings through July 1960 Part 2. Part 2. A August 1960 through December 1960 Part 2. B 1st quarter 1961 Part 2. C 2nd quarter 1961 Part 2. D 3rd quarter 1961 Part 2. E October November 1961 Part 3. Part 3. B 1st quarter 1962 Part 3. C 2nd quarter 1962 Part 3. D 3rd quarter 1962 Part 3. E October November 1962 Appendices.