Solar Activity Immediately Before And During The Apollo Mission

During the period December 11 to 13, 1972, there were two major active regions on the Sun. Region 496, which reached an apparent optical maximum on December 12, produced only a few subflares. Region 500, which emerged on December 10 and 11, also produced only minor subflares during the period December 11 to 13. At 14 55 G.m.t. on December 13, an eruptive prominence was observed on the eastern limb. Figure 19-4 is an optical photograph showing the active solar regions. FIGURE 19-3.-The Sun half...

Surface Temperatures Deduced From Thermocouple Measurements

At each of the two heat flow holes, one of the thermocouples is embedded in a section of the cable that is approximately 15 cm from the top of the borestem and suspended above the lunar surface as shown in figure 9-8. These thermocouples, in radiative balance with the lunar surface, with the solar ilux, and with space, thus provide a measurement of ihe surface brightness temperature throughout the lunation. The flux balance equation governing the thermocouple temperature is + 2-ita dlSAa F cos...

The Lunar Herringbone Pattern

Morrisona The lunar herringbone pattern was first noted on Lunar Orbiter and Apollo 8 photographs of Copernicus secondary craters as a series of lineations forming V-shaped patterns that, when combined, give the appearance of a herringbone pattern ref. 32-22 . Later, a study of this pattern showed conclusively that its components are V-shaped ridges that typically are associated with secondary craters ref. 32-23 . Figure 32-16 shows the location of four...

Lunar Surface Gravimeter

The lunar surface gravimeter was designed to make very accurate 1 part in 1011 measurements of the acceleration of lunar gravity and of its variation with time. These measurements should allow investigations of gravitational waves by using the Moon as an antenna and also investigations of tidal distortions of the shape of the Moon. Following deployment of the gravimeter, problems occurred in trying to balance the beam. These problems were probably caused by an incorrect mass of the beam and...

Lunar Neutron Probe Experiment

Burnett, and C. A. Baumana Primary cosmic ray protons incident on the lunar surface interact with lunar material by means of nuclear reactions, which produce neutrons as secondary products. The initial investigations of the Apollo 11 samples ref. 18-1 showed that gadolinium in lunar materials contained isotopic variations that could be unambiguously ascribed to neutron capture. Such a record of neutron bombardment had not been observed previously in natural samples,...

Lunar Seismic Profiling Experiment

The lunar seismic profiling experiment is an extension of the active seismic experiment carried on the Apollo 14 and 16 missions. Eight explosive charges ranging in size from 57 to 2722 g were deployed at distances between 100 and 2700 m from a triangular geophone array. These charges were later detonated on command from the Earth, and traveltime measurements were obtained that, together with the LM-impact signals, indicate a three-layer model for the valley floor at Taurus-Littrow. The first...

Bear Mountain

Geophone Rock Apollo17

FIGURE 6-37 .-Cloddy secondary crater on slope below station 8. Break in slope is 200 m from camera AS17-142-21741 . FIGURE 6-37 .-Cloddy secondary crater on slope below station 8. Break in slope is 200 m from camera AS17-142-21741 . Hills, the general absence of boulders, and the light-colored, generally fine-grained ejecta seen in the largest craters of this area. Samples larger than 1 cm taken from soil bags and the rake samples include 22 dark-matrix breccias, most of which have small,...

Lunar Thrust Faults In The Tauruslittrow Region

Muehlberger0 Wrinkle ridges in the Taurus-Littrow region along the eastern margin of Mare Serenitatis appear very fresh and are probably among the youngest on the Moon. They include both mare ridges and similar-looking one-sided scarps. Evidence will be presented here to suggest that these ridges and scarps may be anticlines and thrust faults that resulted from sliding on a d collement surface. Alternative interpretations are presented by Scott part D and Hodges part B ....

Small Structures Of The Tauruslittrow Region

Apollo 17 premission geologic studies of the Taurus-Littrow region of the Moon revealed numerous small structures, in both mare and terra, having somewhat similar morphologies and variously resembling fault scarps, flow fronts, and mare ridges. Many of these features are too small to be identified on Lunar Orbiter IV photographs, which provided the most comprehensive, high-resolution coverage of this area before the later Apollo missions. The panoramic-and metric-camera photographs of Apollo 17...

References

Geologic Map of the Maie Serenitatis Region of the Moon. U.S. GeoL Survey Misc. Geol. Inv. Map 1-489, 1966. 29-2. Pohn, Howard A. and Wildey, Robert L. A Photoelectric-Photographic Study of the Normal Albedo of the Moon. U.S. GeoL Survey Prof. Paper 599-E, 1970. 29-3. Whitaker, E. A. The Surface of the Moon. Sec. 3 of The Nature of the Lunar Surface. Proceedings of the 1965 IAU-NASA Symposium, The Johns Hopkins Press Baltimore , 1966, pp. 79-98. 29-4. Whitaker, Ewen A. Lunar...

The Leam Instrument

The major objectives of placing a cosmic dust experiment on the Moon can readily be met by the LEAM instrument fig. 16-5 . This instrument measures the particle speed, particle direction, total particle energy kinetic , and particle momentum for particles having parameters as shown. The LEAM FIGURE 16-5 .-The LEAM experiment, which responds to impacts of microparticles having a mass as low as 10 14 g, a diameter as small as 2 X 10 s cm, and a speed as high as 75 km sec. FIGURE 16-5 .-The LEAM...