A

I I i I i I i J i I i I i I i I .,.i I i 1 i I i I i I i I i I i I i I i I i I i I I I I I i I GET 236 238 240 242 244 246 248 250 252 264 266 268 270 272 274 276 278 280 282 284 286 288 290 292 294 G.m.t. 1& 00 24 00 06 00 18 00 24 00 06 00 12 00 18 00 24 00 Date -April 25-1-April 26-H-April 27-1 At 22 07 00 G.m.t. on April 24, the subsatellite was launched. The subsatellite was the host carrier for an S-band transponder experiment, a particle shadows boundary layer experiment, and a...

Lunarsurface Activities

The LM descent proceeded normally, and the spacecraft landed approximately 230 m northwest of the planned landing site at 2 23 36 G.m.t. on April 21. The best estimate of lunar-surface position is 8 59'34 S latitude and 15 30'47 E longitude, referenced to the Lunar Topographic Photomap of Descartes, First Edition, January 1972 (published by the U.S. Army Topographic Command). The Apollo 16 landing site, in relation to those for Apollo 11,12, 14, and 15, is shown in figure 2-1. The lunar-surface...

References

Kerr, James Zimmer, John Kovach, Robert L. and Watkins, Joel A Seismic Refraction System for Lunar Use. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Electron., vol. GE-7, no. 3, July 1969, pp. 164-171. 10-2. McDowell, Jack R. The Active Seismic Experiment. Bendix Tech. J., vol.4, no. 2, Summer-Autumn 1971, pp. 40-51. 10-3. Latham, Gary V. Ewing, Maurice Press, Frank Sutton, George et al. Passive Seismic Experiment. Sec. 8 of Apollo 15 Preliminary Science Report. NASA SP-289, 1972. 10-4....

Planimetric Shapes Of Lunar Rilles

Oberbeck,a Michio Aoyagi,a Ronald Greeley,a and Michael Lovasa A quantitative classification for the planimetric shape of rilles can be based on the high-resolution lunar photography from the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions and on topographic data to be derived from this photography. The purpose of this preliminary report is (1) to provide a description of a quantitative method for describing rille shape, (2) to apply the method to the description of three grossly different rilles...

Part A Biostack Experiment

Reinholz W. Scheuermann,c W. R ther E. H. Graul,d H. Planel,e J. P. Soleilhavoup,e P. Gier R. Kaiser J. P. Massue R. Pfohl R. Schmitt W. Enge K. P. Bartholom R. Beaujean K. Fukui O. C. Allkofer W. Heinrich H. Fran ois,11 G. Portal,h H. K hn, H. Wollenhaupt,a and G. H. Bowmar The biostack experiment was designed to study the biologic effects of individual heavy nuclei of galactic cosmic radiation during space flight outside the magnetosphere of the Earth....

Info

AMean value, calculated from 10 measurements, precision 2 percent. aMean value, calculated from 10 measurements, precision 2 percent. Nuclear emulsion analyses. Precise evaluations are possible from the processed K2 nuclear emulsions. The coordinate grid and the tracks of heavy ions are seen clearly in figure 27-4. The procedure for processing nuclear emulsions has been described in detail in the Biostack Quick-Look Report (submitted to NASA June 5, 1972). Approximately 1 particle track mm2,...

Ftg

FIGURE 25-9.-Apollo 16 13-cm spectra showing the different scattering law responses for the two cases. Note the geometrical horizon cut-off. (a) Polarized, (b) Unpolarized. 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Vs. eg FIGURE 25-10.-Inferred reflectivity as a function of lunar longitude and angle of incidence from the Apollo 14 data. The smooth curve is calculated for a dielectric constant of 3.1. 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 Vs. eg FIGURE 25-10.-Inferred reflectivity as a function of lunar longitude and angle of...

Pka

FIGURE 29-85.-Flow fronts and scarps, indicated by arrows, in the northeastern ejecta blanket of King Crater. These features are similar to deceleration dunes (ref. 29-31) produced by high-velocity movement of material at or near the surface. The arrows show the direction of movement as the flow fronts lap against the walls of older crater and depressions (Apollo 16 pan camera frame 4992). (See also fig. 29-86.) FIGURE 29-86.-Numerous flow fronts and scarps on the northwestern segment of the...

Topographic Mapping Of The Apollo Landing Site

Bendera The lack of Lunar Orbiter stereoscopic photography from which the basic positional and topographic information could be derived presented some problems on the premission science planning for the Apollo 16 landing site in the lunar highlands north of Descartes Crater. In an attempt to obtain adequate high-resolution stereoscopic photography of the Descartes area, several passes during the Apollo 14 mission had been planned to photograph the area with the...

Foreword

Ever since Galileo's telescope made the rugged lunar surface more clearly visible (in 1610), men have strived to learn more about the origin and history of the Earth's big natural satellite, and never has so much progress been made as in the last few years. The fifth manned lunar landing was in a highlands area, quite different from the sites visited previously, and the discoveries there now seem certain to result in significant improvements in the hypotheses of lunar scientists. Much of the...

Cayley Formation Interpreted As Basin Ejecta

The discovery that samples returned from the Cayley Formation at the Apollo 16 landing site consist mainly of nonvolcanic breccias sees. 6 and 7 of this report suggests that the hypothesis in which light plains-forming materials may be ejecta from multi-ring basins should be reevaluated refs. 29-15 to 29-17 . Improved information on the morphology and distribution of the Cayley Formation, provided by Apollo 16 orbital photography, leads to a concept in which the Cayley Formation was deposited...

Mass Spectrometer Experiment

The objectives of the lunar orbital mass spectrometer carried on both the Apollo 15 and 16 missions were to detect a lunar atmosphere and to search for active lunar volcanism. The instrument covered the mass range from 12 to 67 amu and was sensitive to partial pressures as low as 1 X 1014 torr. Unfortunately, contamination from the spacecraft tends to mask the lower concentrations of the atmospheric gases. However, shortly after the plane change and rendezvous of the Apollo 16 command and...

Alpha Particle Spectrometer Experiment

The third of the remote geochemical sensors, the alpha particle spectrometer, is sensitive to radioactive radon gas emanating from the lunar surface. Because radon itself is a product of the decay of uranium and thorium, mapping the concentration of radon gas is tantamount to mapping regions of high radioactivity. This capability is especially significant where the radioactivity lies below the lunar surface yet might be detected by its escape through fissures. Results from a still incomplete...

Solar Corona Photography

Ross,a and Thomas K. Mattingly b Photographic observations of the solar corona by the Apollo 16 command module pilot while in lunar orbit were designed to provide data on outer coronal forms and intensities to elongation angles1 of 25 . The results of Apollo 15 solar corona photography verified the procedures and provided the first photographs of identifiable coronal streamers curving at elongation angles of some 10 . By using the Apollo 15 data, exposure settings were...

Large Magellanic Cloud Photography

Figure 13-19 shows the LMC, approximately 70 foreground stars, and foreground Lyman-alpha emission increasing toward the horizon. Hydrogen clouds in the LMC were not expected to show on ILi exposures because the local near solar-system hydrogen would absorb Lyman-alpha emission from the LMC, which has a 250-km sec radial velocity and a Doppler shift of only 0.1 nm. Hence, it is not surprising that figure 13-20 in 125-to 160-nm light ICa exposure, Lyman-alpha line excluded reveals a very similar...

Command And Service Module Orbital Photography

During the period of separate operation of the LM and the CSM, the CM pilot CMP completed photographic assignments covering a wide range of targets and requiring the use of various combinations of cameras, lenses, and films table 4-II or operation FIGURE 4-36.-The CDR prepares to take samples at station 10 near the end of EVA-3. The gnomon minus the central staff marks the area to be sampled. Sample bags are held in the CDR's left hand, the cuff-card checklist is on his left arm, and the...

Appendix A Glossary

Achondrite a stony meteorite devoid of rounded granules agglutinate-a deposit of originally molten ejecta albedo the percentage of the incoming radiation that is reflected by a natural surface anhedral pertaining to mineral grains that lack external crystals anorthite-a calcium-rich variety of plagioclase feldspar anorthosite a granular, plutonic, igneous rock composed almost exclusively of a soda-lime feldspar apatite-any of a group of calcium-phosphate minerals that occur variously as...

Transearth Photography

As the CSM came around the Moon headed toward the Earth, the crew photographed earthrise fig. 4-53 , the first TEC earthrise sequence documented by an Apollo crew. Hasselblad photographs of the lunar surface figs. 4-54 to 4-57 were exposed over an extended period as the Moon receded. Many frames have provided significant supplementary coverage some provided the best coverage of far-side areas north of the equator that have been obtained. The mapping camera exposed 442 frames during 2.5 hr of...

AS

FIGURE 6-23.-Rock distribution within 10 m of the station 2 panorama. FIGURE 6-24.-Sample 61156, an angular rock S-72-38391 . FIGURE 6-24.-Sample 61156, an angular rock S-72-38391 . FIGURE 6-25.-Sample 61175, an eroded rock S-72-39285 . FIGURE 6-25.-Sample 61175, an eroded rock S-72-39285 . The area is crossed by a faint ray of light albedo material that is apparently derived from South Ray Crater. Subdued, grooved lineaments radial to South Ray Crater also cross the area fig. 6-15 . Fragments...

Far Uv Cameraspectrograph Experiment

The far UV camera spectrograph was operated from the lunar surface for the first time on Apollo 16. The instrument was sensitive to light in the 50- to 160-nm range and blind to ordinary visible light. The experiment was completely successful in that the experiment team obtained 178 photographic frames of far UV data on the airglow and polar auroral zones of the Earth and the geocorona on over 550 stars, nebulae, or galaxies and on the nearest external galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud. The...

Transponder Experiment

S-band transponder tracking of the LM-CSM and of the Apollo subsatellites is used to map the lunar gravitational field. The degree of correlation between the gravity map and physiographic features such as craters or mountains is used to infer density contrasts or to detect buried structures. Unlike spacecraft on previous Apollo missions, the Apollo 16 LM-CSM did not traverse any known completely visible mascons. However, several features do appear in the new gravity profiles. An extensive...

Data Acquisition

Mendeleev Observation

Several years of planning and training went into the development of a plan that would allow the orbiting observer to complement the data collected by the spacecraft remote sensors and the surface exploration team. The tools available in the command module CM were limited to the maps, photographs, and other graphic materials prepared in support of the task a pair of 10-power binoculars carried for the first time on the Apollo 16 mission a reference color wheel two handheld cameras and a...

Visual Light Flash Phenomenon

Pinskya Beginning with the Apollo 11 lunar mission, crewmen have reported seeing flashes of light while they were relaxing in the darkened command module or wearing light-tight eyeshades. These events have been described as colorless starlike flashes, narrow streaks of light, or diffuse light flashes and have been observed during translunar coast, in lunar orbit, on the lunar surface, and during transearth coast. At the times of the observations, the crewmen...

Earth Atmosphere Photography

Because the Earth is so bright in the lunar sky, special arrangements were made in advance for the commander to take short ILi exposures by interrupting the normal exposure sequence at specified times. Unfortunately, when these interruptions were made, the film was not advanced properly, so that adjacent frames overlap by approximately 30 percent. Figures 13-4, 13-5, and 13-6 are the 1-, 15-, and 60-sec ILi exposures, respectively 105 to 160 nm . These figures show the airglow of the sunlit...

King Crater And Its Environs

King Crater, approximately 75 km in diameter and, on the average, 3.8 km deep part L of this section , is among the most significant features that were photographed and visually studied from lunar orbit on the Apollo 16 mission. It is the freshest crater on the far side in its size range and has several unique characteristics. 1 Although its ejecta blanket displays very sharp features, the crater does not appear to have extensive ray systems fig. 29-82 and secondary crater chains. 2 As depicted...

Ranger And Other Impact Craters Photographed By Apollo

The Apollo 16 crew photographed an unusual variety of impact craters, including the two craters produced by the impacts of Ranger 7 and 9 spacecraft, small craters produced by boulders as they bounced downslope, craters with marked bilateral symmetry, and primary craters with a wide range of morphologies and sizes. Ranger impact craters and examples of other craters are discussed briefly in this subsection. The Ranger 7 and 9 spacecraft impacted the lunar surface July 31, 1964, and March 24,...