## Application Of Transition Criterion To Flight Calculations

REAL-GAS SPACE SHUTTLE TRAJECTORY (VARIABLE ENTROPY) a 60 Me 1.9 81.69 km 7.692 km sec It appears from calculations of boundary-layer edge conditions using variable entropy and from a flow-field survey that oblique-shock entropy should be used for shuttle configurations, both for flight and wind-tunnel applications. It is recognized that as new boundary-layer transition data applicable to shuttle technology became available and that as the method of determining edge conditions is fixed, the...

## Windward Centerline Pressures

NAR DELTA-WING ORB ITER Mco 7.4 RecoL I.lxl06-3.3xl06 Centerline heating rates for various angles of attack are shown. The data, obtained using a thermo- couple model, are shown for Reynolds numbers between 1 x 10 and U x 10 . The data are believed to be laminar, except at a 53 , where the last station showed a consistent increase in heating with increase in Reynolds number which is usual when transition to turbulent flow occurs. Data at higher Reynolds number are shown later. The corresponding...

## And A Straightwing Orbiter

CALCULATED CENTER-LINE SURFACE TEMPERATURE FOR TWO SHUTTLE GEOMETRIES (Figure 8) The surface temperatures on the straight-wing orbiter are substantially greater than those on the delta-wing orbiter at a 50 These calculated temperatures are based on a maximum stagnation heating obtained for a low cross-range trajectory (ref. 7) All the temperatures calculated exceed the structural limits for titanium.

## Orbiter Configurations

NAR STRAIGHT WING (0.006 SCALE, L 0.315m) (1.034 ft) MSC STRAIGHT WING (0.01 SCALE, L 0.466m) (1.53 ft)1 NAR DELTA WING 134-0.006 SCALE, L 0.323m (l.06ft) ,129-0.008 SCALE, L 0.41 m (l.35ft)J Slide 2 is a photograph of an oil-flow pattern representing the surface streamline directions on the lower surface of the NAR straight-wing orbiter at a 60 and M 7-Uniform patterns which show significant cross flow are formed on the fuselage ahead and downstream of the wing location. The influence of the...

## Scope

- DETERMINE WING ASPECT RATIO WITH MINIMUM FLYBACK SYSTEMS WEIGHT (FSW) - BOOSTER FLYBACK CRUISE PERFORMANCE - TOTAL MISSION PERFORMANCE SENSITIVITIES -COST TRENDS The booster wing geometry trade studies have been directed toward determining the wing aspect ratio that results in minimum system weight. A parameter referred to as flyback systems weight (FSW), the sum of wing airbreathing engine and flyback fuel weights, is used to relate the influence of wing geometry on the booster flyback leg...

## Pitot Pressure Ratio From A Flowfield Survey

A 40 19.04 x 10 M 7.99 ' m 00 EDGE OF TRANSITIONAL BOUNDARY LAYER (SCHLIEREN) 0 3 6 9 12 15 18 DISTANCE NORMAL TO WALL, y, mm TRANSITION CORRELATE CITS (Figure 7(a)) Figure 7(a) shows new boundary-layer transition data obtained frcm the Langley Mach 8 ground tests on the delta-wing and straight-body configurations and from the flight of a cone which reentered the earth's atmosphere at angles of attack. In addition, the transition results from two other flights are shown. The boundary-layer edge...

## North american rockwell transition correlation

TRANSITION CORRELATION (Figure 9(a)) Figure 9(a) shows the new boundary-layer transition data from (l) the Langley Mach 8 ground tests, (2) the cone angle-of-attack flight, (3) two other flights, and (4) some blunt-cone flight data. The solid line represents the best linear fit to 78 flight data points at a 0 and was established independently of any other data presented in figure 9. The new data are presented in terms of a correlating parameter established by Beckwith and Stainback of the...

## R

TRANSITION CORRELATION (Figure 8(a)) Figure 8(a) shows the new boundary-layer transition data obtained from Langley Mach 8 ground tests on the delta-wing and straight-body configurations and from the cone angle-of-attack flight. The edge conditions for the Langley ground test data are calculated by using normal-shock entropy (because the transition criterion is based on normal shock entropy), but the cone angle-of-attack and other flight data are calculated by using oblique-shock entropy. In...

## Navigation Performance

TARGET 12964KM (7000 NM) DOWNRANGE, 2185KM (1180 NM) CROSSRANGE ENTRY RMS STATE VECTOR ERROR - POSITION 780 M (2550 FT), VELOCITY 0.9 M S (2.9 FPS) IMU 3CT-MISALIGNMENT - 1 MRAD IM ERROR 3 o GYRO BIAS DRIFT RATE -0.1 DEG HR 3 aACCELEROMETER BIAS - 0.024 CM SEC The navigation performance of a gimbaled Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) is described by the time history of the 3a vertical and horizontal position errors. The trajectory target location is 12,961+ km (7000 naut. mi.) downrange and 2037...

## Possible Trajectory Shaping Objectives

WITH TEMPERATURE AND LOAD FACTOR CONSTRAINTS 2. MINIMIZE TPS WEIGHT FOR SPECIFIED C.R. AND LOAD FACTOR CONSTRAINT 3. MINIMIZE TPS COST FOR SPECIFIED C.R. AND LOAD FACTOR CONSTRAINT 4. MINIMIZE IMPACT OF TPS ON TOTAL PROGRAM COST FOR SPECIFIED C.R. AND LOAD FACTOR CONSTRAINT Reynolds Number at Fully Turbulent Flow W A TPS Unit Weight kg m2 X L Fractional Vehicle Length 6 Duration of the Heating Pulse sec 8 Vehicle Pitch Angle Relative to Local deg p Horizontal ENTRY...

## Max Centerline Temperature K

The analysis of the entry trajectories presented herein indicates that the type of shaping significantly affects TPS requirements and that a different shaping philosophy should be employed for a metallic system than for a non-metallic system. The shaping objective for a metallic TPS is to control the vehicle in a manner to minimize peak bottom centerline temperature. This will allow utilization of the lightest possible metallic material on the bottom surface. Particular attention should be...

## Delta Wing Correlation Lift Coefficient

LATERAL-DIRECTIONAL STABILITY DERIVATIVES Slide 11 The yaw induced asymmetric flow field, vortex activity and nose and leading edge bluntness effects cause difficulty in the theoretical determination of the lateral-directional stability characteristics. The top portion of the slide presents the results of our most recent test. The propel 1 ant requirement for reaction control is very sensitive to the values of the yawing moment coefficient derivative, C and rolling moment coefficient...

## Prediction Methods

Re9 Ml1 Reu 2 f lt REAL GAS SPALDING-CHI WITH VON KARMAN REYNOLDS ANALOGY L. C. Baranowski, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company East L. C. Baranowski, McDonnell Douglas Astronautics Company East TYPICAL DELTA ORBITER ENTRY TRAJECTORY Slide 4 In the first part of this analysis the entry trajectory is divided into two phases to simplify the trajectory shaping problem and to yield greater insight into what type of entry control will minimize orbiter TPS. The first phase begins at 122000 m...

## Heating Rate Distribution On Booster Top Bottom Centerline During Ascent

0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 NONDIMENSIONAL AXIAL DISTANCE DATA FAIRING A PAINT DATA TOP SURFACE O PAINT DATA BOTTOM SURFACE A correlation between paint phase-change and thermocouple heat transfer rate data is shown for booster alone at 0 angle of attack. The heat transfer rate distribution on the top surface is indicated by triangles while the round symbols show the heat transfer distribution on the lower surface. Paint data is indicated by open symbols, while the filled symbols show thermocouple data....

## Separation Trajectory Studies

RELATIVE EFFECTS OF PLUME IMPINGEMENT AND AERODYNAMICS ON A SEPARATION TRAJECTORY Figures 7 and 8 To determine the relative importance of the plume forces and moments requires comparisons with the other forces and moments affecting the vehicles. The most significant comparison is with the vehicle aerodynamics. Because of the low dynamic pressure at the nominal staging altitude, the aerodynamic forces and moments acting on the booster are small relative to the plume forces and moments, as...

## Summary

DRAG CONTROLLER CAN SHAPE Q AND G PROFILES WITHIN 2 000 BY 180 NAUT. mi. LOW CROSSRANGE MODE FOOTPRINT 5 000 BY 1100 NAUT. mi. HIGH CROSSRANGE MODE FOOTPRINT AN UNDERBODY HEAT RATE PHASE CAN MAINTAIN TU BELOW SPECIFIED LIMIT BANK ANGLE CONTROL AUTHORITY OF 1.5 sec2 IS REQUIRED FOR CONTROL OF THERMAL ENVIRONMENT MAX Tub CONSTRAINTS REDUCE RANGE OF ALLOWABLE ENTRY FLIGHT PATH ANGLES ALTITUDE POSITION ERROR IS 6.1 km 20 000 ft DURING CRITICAL HEATING AND 20 NAUT. mi. DURING TERMINAL TARGET CONTROL...

## Az n

0 2 4 6 8 10 TIME FROM ORBITER-ENGINE IGNITION, SEC EFFECTS OF PLUME IMPINGEMENT FOR A TYPICAL SEPARATION SCHEME In these trajectories, a 0 pitch rate on the booster was assumed at separation. However, for most separation devices and schemes i.e., pistons with booster-engine shutdown and reverse linkage with the booster at reduced thrust level , a negative nose down rate is imparted to the booster. The trajectory case D shown in figure 10 is for a booster with an initial pitch rate of -3.6 deg...

## Y

NASA SPACE SHUTTLE TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE Volume I - Aerothcrmodynamics, Configurations, and Flight Mechanics Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia Langley Research Center Hampton, Virginia WlTONAI AERONAUflVs AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION . WASHINGTON, D. C. APRIL 1971 4. Title and Subtitle NASA SPACE SHUTTLE TECHNOLOGY CONFERENCE Volume I - Aerothermodynamics, Configur tions, and Flight Mechanics 9. Performing Organization Name and Address 12. Sponsoring Agency Name and Address National...

## Technology Challenge

GENERATE DESIGN DATA RELATIVE TO ADVANCED MATERIALS PROPERTIES, AERODYNAMIC HEATING AND FLIGHT LOADS DEMONSTRATE APPLICATION OF THERMAL PROTECTION By A. 0. Tischler Director of Shuttle Technologies Office, OART NASA Headquarters, Washington, D.C. This conference is on the technology work being done for the reusable space launch vehicle commonly known as the shuttle. It covers three areas of work. These are the related fields of aerodynamics and configuration refinement, structures and...