Payload

Skylab Saturn V configuration comparison. stayed in orbit for several years. If the shuttle had made its original operations goal (launch), Skylab would have been reboosted and used as a forerunner to the planned larger space station. However, this did not happen and Skylab reentered the atmosphere, landing in Australia. 2. Evolution Creativity Innovation. During early development, many trades were done as the approach to use for going to the Moon, i.e., trans-lunar versus...

Heao

The sophistication of the tools of high energy astronomy has increased dramatically over the past 2 decades, culminating in the HEAO program, which put three satellites into orbit, each carrying over 3,000 lb of experiments. This program has transformed high energy astronomy from an interesting tributary or side branch to one of the main channels of astronomical research. The HEAO experiments have made it abundantly clear that if we want to understand an astronomical object, we...

Srb

Statistics analysis employed to determine critical crack size (0.09 in) and required time between inspections (16 hot firings, 2 flights) Leakage of combustion gases causing the 51L disaster Seal response was inadequate for the joint displacement rate at ignition Redesigned the joint to decrease displacement rate by 10X and heated seals to enhance response Cracks occur at stub holes, potential unsafe condition for reuse Repair damage by removing stress concentrations High seal temperature...

Engine Lpf Duct Bellows Failure Probable Failure Scenario

Figure 76. SSME impact failure zone. part failed in hot fire. One possible cause was due to the vibration criteria used for the vibration testing that did not include internal flow excitation because it was based on hot-fire-measured mechanical data at the duct ends and other locations on the engines and its parts. This is one limitation of mechanical testing because it is not practical to simultaneously test flow and mechanical vibration environments...

Msfc Program Evolution

During the Jupiter and Redstone programs, there was a struggle trade of how best to deal with aerodynamically unstable missile systems, including performance loss due to winds, guidance, and loads. The aerodynamic stability question could be solved by putting large static aerodynamic fins on the aft end, and optimizing the external shapes and mass distributions propellant tank locations . In many cases, the fins were too large, thus thrust vectoring was...

On

Spacelab module configuration continued . Figure 122. Spacelab module configuration continued . Figure 122. Spacelab module configuration continued . Figure 122. Spacelab module configuration continued . Figure 123. Spacelab typical pallet configuration. Figure 123. Spacelab typical pallet configuration. Figure 124. Spacelab module and pallet combination. Figure 124. Spacelab module and pallet combination. Spacelab, as a laboratory, has emphasized microgravity science, life...

Info

The next section will deal with the shuttle elements. 2. Space Shuttle Main Engine. The following section is a collection of materials, data, charts, etc., from several sources associated with the SSME. These sources are 1 MSFC and Rocketdyne failure investigation reports, 2 Rocketdyne presentations, 3 MSFC Rocketdyne special problem resolution teams, 4 MSFC and Rocketdyne studies and reports, and 5 MSFC and Rocketdyne technical society papers and professional journal articles. The engine...

R

Skirt Design Analysis Aerospace

Designing the SRB SRM to maximum minimum loads instead of time-consistent loads was an approach that saved redesigns and cost as the shuttle system evolved and loads increased. This approach early in the program was optimal since the dry weight of the SRM SRB to payload to orbit was approximately 8 to 1. This meant that approximately 8 lb of structural weight would only penalize the performance 1 lb. Late in the development program as loads increased, time consistent loads could be used to...

Rpl

Ssme Flow Diagram

SSME propellant flow diagram. Figure 50. SSME propellant flow diagram. Many other innovations were apparent as various problems occurred. The numerous major hot-fire development problems were studied and resolved using Government contractor concurrent engineering teams, usually called failure investigation boards. Although the word concurrent engineering was not in vogue, the operating approach and team makeup were part of the characteristics of the current definition. See reference...

Tup

Aircraft Bathtub Fitting

The original design had bathtub fittings at the fine guidance sensor, and the radial scientific instruments SI's points B and C latch locations the focal plane side of each of these points, i.e., the fixed half of the latch were bolted to these bathtub fittings. All of the fittings failed three were tested well below the design load. The failures were all in the length of the edge of the fitting fig. 120 . The failure was due to the fact that the design did not place any...

Tps

Minimize SOFI thickness on tank sidewalls Al Li 2090, 2195 Other Redesigned Parts No Change Figure 102. ET SLWT lox tank changes. As stated previously, the tank is a prime part of the liquid propulsion system in that it contains level sensors, the pressurization system, etc., as shown on figure 103. It also contains the tumble valve for ensuring that the ET tumbles and breaks up as it enters the atmosphere and that resulting pieces stay within a safe footprint in the Atlantic Ocean and do not...

Electrodynamic Tether String Mode Excitation

Although as illustrated the tether forces are in-plane this is not the general case and excitation usually occurs in both planes. Figure 144. Electrodynamic tether properties. Figure 144. Electrodynamic tether properties. Figure 145. Dynamic modes of a tethered satellite. complicated by the difficulty of sensing the amplitude, phase, and frequency of the skiprope dynamics. It can be inferred by the dynamics it introduces into the satellite, by visual observations from the orbiter, or by some...

External Tank Separation

Space Shuttle Ascent Profile

Space shuttle typical mission profile. Figure 42. Space shuttle typical mission profile. Figure 43. Space shuttle typical ascent and descent trajectory profiles. Figure 43. Space shuttle typical ascent and descent trajectory profiles. b. Evolution Creativity Innovation. The development of such a complex machine required the best in engineering innovation, creativity, and common sense. Management of such a complex government-industrial teaming also required the same innovation, etc....

Srb Aft Skirt Dimensions

Solid Rocket Booster Aft Skirt

0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 DEGREES FROM Y SRB AXIS 50 RADIAL 100 RADIAL o 150 RADIAL Figure 91. SRB radial load sensitivity. the symmetrical skirt showing the large peak at the weld for different load variations. Figure 92 is a detailed finite element stress analysis localized around the weld failure point, showing the large stress intensity at the weld near the bottom of the skirt. Part of the loads sensitivity of the aft skirt is due to the holddown mechanism, which is composed of the...

High Pressure Fuel Turbopump Coolany Liner Pressure

Rocket Propellant Pump

00 HIGH PRESSURE f OXIDIZER TURBOPUMP INTERMEDIATE SEAL PURGE PRESSURE Figure 55. SSME schematic with failures. Figure 55. SSME schematic with failures. 1 SSME 4,000 Hz. Flow instabilities have been the classical problem of structural systems. They have taken many forms, occurring unexpectedly, taking human life. Many textbooks and technical papers focus on the phenomenon aircraft flutter garners the bigger emphasis. Internal flow in fluid systems experiences the same instabilities. An...

Space Shuttle Systems

Space Shuttle Engineering Improvements

If the space shuttle taught one lesson, it was that the system effects predominated the vehicle characteristics and the problems experienced. Therefore, system requirements and integration are key elements for aerospace systems quality and, thus, success. It clearly taught a second lesson that the higher the performance requirements, the higher the sensitivities to system interactions, environments, uncertainties, manufacturing tolerances, and operational complexity. The matrix of problems,...

Ocad

Hydrodynamic Bearing

Flight Restrictions Result In Lower Launch Probability L.P. OMS POD M 1.55 OMS Deck M 1.05 Complete Set of Flight Restrictions Will Be Defined In SODB Structural Constraints Document - June 18 Figure 46. Space shuttle Mach 1.25 squatcheloid. Figure 47. Space shuttle family of squatcheloids. Figure 47. Space shuttle family of squatcheloids. These resulted in weld problems. To save cost, formal fracture control was initially not a design requirement following the pattern of the Saturn engines,...